AMNH Seminars in Science: The Brain:Structure, Function & Evolution
FINAL PROJECT J. Tankel Fall 2014
Title: Hearing, Sound & the Brain, part of a unit on:
The Five Senses & How the Brain Processes and Interprets External Stimuli.
Target group: Elementary, grade 5
Time: 6 2-period blocks
Standards: Standard C: Life science
- The cell
- Molecular basis of heredity
- Biological evolution
- Interdependence of organisms
- Matter, energy, and organization in living systems
- Behavior of organisms
LE 1.2h, LE 5.1g (Nervous system) Responding to the external environment
Standard 1: Students will use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design, as appropriate, to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions.
Topic: “How Do We Sense?” – “How do our brains transform sensory input into what we experience as hearing?” We will investigate various aspects that contribute to how we hear: the anatomy of the ear, its’ connection to the auditory nerve and brain.
The ability to hear is, for the most part, the provenance of vertebrates and insects.3 Not all species have mechanisms for hearing, let alone for understanding and communicating. Humans are unique in that we have the means to represent and communicate meaning and ideas through abstract symbols and sounds; to combine and recombine symbols to communicate meaning, visually and aurally. Through our unique anatomy we receive, process and interpret a panoply of sounds. Complex and sophisticated regions in our brains enable us to hear, decode, comprehend, and communicate. In these, now famous, words of Helen Keller, “The only thing worse than being blind is having sight but no vision.”4 And, similarly, the only thing worse than being deaf is having hearing and yet not listening. Deafness “means the loss of the most vital stimulus — the sound of the voice that brings language, sets thoughts astir and keeps us in the intellectual company of man.”5
Sound starts as ambient energy. That energy sets molecules in motion in a rippling, domino-effect, emanating away from the source. Our ears and brain coordinate to locate the origin and make sense of the sound. The pinna or auricle, the visible, fleshy part of the ear, detects these vibrations and funnels them into the ear canal to the timpanic membrane or eardrum. The eardrum helps discriminate among volume, pitch, timbre and rhythm.6 This constitutes the part of the ear we call the outer ear. Like the head of a drum, the timpanic membrane amplifies the sound and sets off a chain reaction in the ossicles, three tiny bones: the malleus (hammer), incus (anvil) and stapes (stirrup), respectively, which constitute the middle ear. Like a piston, these bones transmit mechanical energy to the threshold of the inner ear, the oval window. Until now, the vibrations have been traveling through air, the oval window ushers them into the fluid-filled chamber of the cochlea. Here, in the inner ear, are also those parts of the vestibular system regulating one’s sense of balance, the utricle, saccule and semicircular canals. The now-vibrating fluid transmits energy into the snail-shaped basilar membrane on the organ of Corti within the cochlear membrane. This, in turn, activates auditory receptor cells, also known as hair cells. These frequency-specific hair cells are organized and mapped out tonotopically along the membrane, descending from highest to lowest, from the base to the apex. Stimulation of these hairs triggers a change in electrical potential and the release of neurotransmitters in a process called transduction, where mechanical energy is transformed or converted into electrical impulses. These, then, travel up the auditory nerve to the brain for it to process and interpret. Here in the brain sound is further discriminated and refined to determine features of stimuli, intensity cues, and arrival time cues, and if a physical, emotional or verbal response is warranted.
As external molecules bounce on and off each other, they compress and decompress. The alternating pressure of these vibrations is measured in waves or cycles per unit of time, ie. per second (hertz/Hz). Frequency indicates the rate at which these sound waves are moving. The faster or greater the number of cycles per second, the higher the frequency and, conversely, the slower or fewer the number of cycles, the lower the frequency. The taller a sound wave, the louder the amplitude or intensity, the shallower the cycle, the quieter the amplitude. So, frequency is indicated by the number of waves, amplitude, by the height of the waves.
This has been an opportunity for me to design my idea of a fantasy unit. It has always been my mission, as an educator, to get students “fired up” and I’ve always been interested in research and creative curriculum design. Engaging students with content-rich, dynamic, vivid and engrossing material is paramount. My greatest reward and joy has always been witnessing those moments when students, through sheer experimentation and determination, “get it.”
An ideal unit would include inquiry-based strategies, multimedia, performance-based assessments, open-ended experimentation and dialogue. All the things I don’t feel we have enough time for now. Every once in a great while my students get to just talk science or experiment in a profound and meaningful (leisurely) way. As it stands, I almost always feel we need rush through experiments and, oft-times, sacrifice experimentation time for closure. They have so many interests, are so curious, and have so many spectacular ideas, and so little time to express themselves. Ideally, there would be more emphasis on STEM subjects, more resources, more professional development, more time and more support.
One of my major concerns is that, given these time constraints, I tend to be overly ambitious. I have trouble editing. This topic, especially, is so dense. Those invaluable aspects of this course; brain-storming with deep thinkers and being asked the big questions are two of the things we need to practice in our own classrooms. Experiencing these best practices modeled as they should be in all schools has got ME “fired up!” And that is what I strive to offer my students, opportunities to think big and think deep.
|Day 1:The EAR and HOW We HEARPart #1Basic Anatomy & theModel EAR
|Objective: Students will demonstrate understanding of the anatomy (parts and functions) of the human ear by constructing and labeling models and diagrams.Standards:ü Interdependence of organismsü Matter, energy, and organization of living systemsü Behavior of organisms
Opening: I will bring the class to attention by ringing a chime (this is, already, an established procedure in our school community) and instruct them to join me on the rug.
Guiding Questions: “What made you stop and turn your attention to me?” “How did you know where to look?” “How did you know what my instructions were?” “What do you know about hearing that might explain these phenomena?” After some discussion, I will explain to students we are starting a new unit on Hearing, Sound & the Brain. Students will view several short videos explaining the anatomy and function of the various parts of the ear and how it connects to the auditory nerve and brain.
Body: We will be constructing models of the eardrum and vocal chord.
Guiding Questions: What do you think will happen when sound is introduced to your model? How do you think different sounds will affect your model?
1) Each table/group will construct a physical model of the ear drum (timpanic nerve) using a bowl, plastic wrap and uncooked rice and a vocal cord, using a plastic cup, rubber band and straw; experimenting & observing how energy from sound waves causes parts of the ear/vocal chord to vibrate.
2) Each student will cut out and label a mini accordion-diagram of the human ear (see attached – http://www.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3757140).
|Day 2:The EAR and HOWWe HEARPart #2 WHEREThe BRAIN
HEARING is BELIEVING
|Objective: Students will understand the anatomy of the ear and how the brain coordinates the sound entering both ears to find the single, accurate location of sounds.Standards:ü Interdependence of organismsü Matter, energy, and organization of living systemsü Behavior of organisms
Guiding Questions: What factors contribute to our ability to accurately locate sounds? How does one know the source of the sound?
Activity: Students will be arranged in a group of 11: a ‘listener’, ‘pointer’ and ‘recorder’ and 8 ‘compass points’ forming a circle around the ‘listener’ (one of each of the 8 sitting on the floor in each of the directions of the compass (N, S, E, W, NE, NW, SE, SW)) Each of the compass ‘points’ will have a ‘badge’ (post-it) identifying their position and a pencil (same size). The ‘listener’ will sit, blindfolded, in the center. There will be 3 trials, the first, with the ‘listener’ with one ear plugged, the second, with full use of both ears, and a third, with paper cups over each ear acting as amplifiers. The ‘pointer’ will, silently, point to a random position and that person will tap their pencil on the floor. The ‘listener’ will try to discern from which direction the sound is coming. The ‘recorder’ will make a note of whether the ‘listener’ was accurate. Students will take turns being ‘listener’/‘recorder’/’pointer’. We will conclude with a demonstration of how one’s hearing might be impaired were one’s hearing comprised. Students will observe a different ear configuration and try to determine how it will affect one’s hearing. Guiding Question: How do you think the configuration (see figure below) will affect one’s ability to detect the source of a sound? http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/content/kitchenscience/exp/swapping-sounds/
Closing: We will discuss what conclusions we can draw about how the brain coordinates our two ears to give us an accurate idea of the direction and location from which a sound emanates; how having two ears, much like having two eyes, affects hearing; how the larger the auricle/pinna, the more sound detection is enhanced, and how hearing, without seeing, can be deceptive.
Extension: Students will experiment using different size/shape paper (ie. cones) to discover how hearing is best enhanced and we will view some slides putting hearing devices into historical context. This will help introduce and inform the lesson on animal hearing. We will experiment with the INTERACTIVES:http://www.wildmusic.org/en/soundscapes/placematters & http://www.wildmusic.org/en/soundscapes/soundmixer and hear how, as animals move around different environments, it changes our perception.
|Day 3:WHAT We HEARSound:Frequency& Amplitude
|Objective: Students will demonstrate understanding of the distinction between frequency & amplitude, how sound travels and can be represented by waves.Standards:ü Matter, energy and organization of living systemsGuiding Questions: What is sound? How do we represent sound/frequency/amplitude?Opening: We will listen to hearing and frequency tests and students will record the frequency at which they can hear and how they perceive different frequencies.
Resources:http://www.noiseaddicts.com/2009/03/can-you-hear-this-hearing-test/http://tonometric.com/adaptivepitch/http://www.wildmusic.org/en/aboutsound/mosquitohttps://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/nih3/hearing/guide/nih_hear_masters.pdf pages 6 & 7
1) We will experiment with an oscillator and discuss how sound is made up of energy and how the vibrations from that energy vary to produce different pitches.
2) We will watch several animations, as well as an interactive graph, illustrating how both frequency & amplitude can be represented visually by sound waves.
Assessment: Students will fill out a worksheet demonstrating their understanding of how frequency and amplitude are represented visually as waves. Example: “Create a system to label the following from highest to lowest and from loudest to softest.”
Extension/Homework: Students will take hearing tests with their families and observe, note and draw conclusions about hearing differences among their family members.
|Day 4:The EAR and HOW We HEARPart #3Focus on the Inner Ear:the Cochlea and Basilar Membrane||Ojective: Students will demonstrate understanding of how the basilar membrane contributes to our ability to distinguish frequency by reproducing sounds.Standards:ü Interdependence of organismsü Matter, energy, and organization of living systemsü Behavior of organisms
Opening: We will view an excerpt from a history Channel video about Benjamin Franklin’s glass armonica and a video about how sound travels through water (“The Hot Chocolate Effect”).
Body: Students will examine diagrams of the cochlea and basilar membrane (see attached). We will observe and compare how the hair cells in the basilar membrane act like a scale, picking up frequency-specific tones, ascending from apex to base, and sending electrical signals to the brain by way of the auditory nerve.
Guiding Question: How do you think the properties of an object affect the sound it produces?
Activity: Students will experiment with xylophones, reproducing the frequency-specificity of hair cells within the basilar membrane with xylophone bars (see attached diagrams). Students take turns “conducting” by playing a note behind a barrier at the front of the class, while the rest of the class tries to reproduce the same tone. The goal would be for the tones to slowly coalesce into something approximating the same pitch/frequency as the “conductor”. Then students would pair up, each student having their own xylophone. Facing each other, a cardboard barrier between them blocking view of each other’s xylophones, they would take turns, each playing a tone and the other trying to reproduce it. They would do this for 5 min. and come up with rules about how different properties of an object might affect frequency. Then, they might try building on the # of notes, reproducing a short “melody.” Finally, time permitting, we would try different instruments to explain what timbre is and see how it might affect pitch perception.
Closing: We will discuss our conclusions regarding how properties of different materials and dimensions affect sound perception.
Extension 1: Students will research DIY instruments, make one of their own, demonstrate it to the class and be able to explain how it works (vis a vis properties and pitch). The class will have an opportunity to experiment with each other’s instruments. We will have an Acoustic Orchestra performance and establish an Acoustic Museum.
Extension 2: We will view several slides, videos and websites about how artists use sound to create their art. (See Day 4 – Multimedia Resources)
|Day 5:HEARINGWithoutSOUND!ASL & BrailleLanguages Without Speech||Objective: Students will demonstrate understanding of alternative systems of communication by practicing reading & writing in braille and inventing their own code.Standards:ü Interdependence of organismsü Matter, energy, and organization of living systemsü Behavior of organisms
Guiding Questions: What methods do people have for communicating without access to hearing (non-verbal)? How do these systems work and what do you see as their advantages or disadvantages? What do you think makes for an effective method of non-verbal communication? How might you create a system that works?
Opening: We will view several slides and watch a brief video explaining how external sound is processed by the brain; what happens when that is compromised and the successful implantation of a cochlear implant. Then we will listen to some simulations of how one might hear with a cochlear implant and compare it to how one might see with a retinal implant (see attached).
Body: We will investigate alternative, non-verbal methods of communication (ASL, Braille and Morse Code) and discuss what might contribute to make a system an effective method of communication.
Activity: Students will work in pairs, experimenting using Braille, ASL and Morse Code to communicate with their partner.
Resources: http://www.amnh.org/explore/ology/brain (See attached).
Closing: We will share our ideas and discuss which systems were most effective and why. We will view a video on how scientists are experimenting with gerbils (because they hear at the same frequency we do, unlike mice) and stem cells to reconstruct hair cells and nerve cells in order to restore hearing in the hearing impaired. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2202194/Cure-deafness-real
Extension: Students will use what they’ve learned to create their own non-verbal system/code of communication and we will share and discuss what factors contributed to making an efficient system.
Extension 2: An investigation into the phenomenon of how the visually-impaired may make auditory compensation. Recruitment of the visual cortex to process auditory input enables listeners to hear at super speeds, giving them an auditory advantage.
|Day 6:Animals:EARS DesignedTo HEAR||Objective: Students will understand a variety of mechanisms/adaptations animals use to hear and why. And, how, in some ways, we are alike and, in others, we are different.Standards:ü Interdependence of organismsü Matter, energy, and organization of living systemsü Behavior of organisms
Guiding Question: What contributes to give certain animals more acute, less acute, or just different hearing than humans?
Opening: We will watch a short video, listen to several types of thrush and watch what the frequencies of their song look like. http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/tdc02.sci.life.reg. animalhear/animal-hearing/http://www.wildmusic.org/en/animals/thrush
Body: Students will investigate an animal of their choosing, insofar as hearing and the brain are concerned. Students will give a presentation in the format of their choosing: power point presentation, brochure, puppet show, etc.
Closing: We will share our discoveries and discuss how necessity/survival is reflected in the anatomy of the ear of various species.
Hand-out – Day 1: Parts and Functions of the Human Ear
- Auricle/Pinna—the outer portion of the external ear: sound travels through the outer ear to the ear canal.
- Auditory Canal—the open passage through which sound waves travel to the middle ear.
- Timpanic Membrane/Eardrum—a taut, circular piece of skin that vibrates when hit by sound waves.
- Malleus (Hammer), Incus (Anvil), Stapes (Stirrup)—tiny bones that vibrate to amplify sound waves. These are the smallest bones in the body.
- Eustachian Tube—the passageway that connects the ear to the back of the nose to maintain equal air pressure on both sides of the eardrum.
- Cochlea—coiled, fluid-filled structure of the inner ear that contains hair cells called cilia. Cilia sway in response to sound waves, transmitting signals toward the brain.
- Semicircular Canals—fluid-filled structures in the inner ear that detect movement and function as balance organs.
- Auditory Nerve—bundle of nerve cells that carry signals from the sensory fibers to the brain. http://www.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3757140
Hand-out: Day 1 – Study Diagram & Label http://www.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3757140
Day 2: Record Hearing Test Data (1of 2)
Name ____________________ Date ________________
Name _____________________ Date ____________
Handout – Day 4 – The Basilar Membrane: Specialized for Sound/Frequency
Slides – Day 2
Devices for Personal Hearing-Enhancement
|Japanese War “Tuba” – actually an acoustic horn to ascertain the direction of incoming planes.|
“Before the invention of radar, the direction-finding-abilities of human ears were used to act as an early warning system for detecting planes. They used multiple large horns (like the funnels in this experiment) which were attached with tubes into an operator’s ears. The operator then moved the horns until they sounded like they were pointing at the aircraft, and because they were so far apart, the direction was much more accurate than ears alone.
Unfortunately as planes got faster, the direction of the sound was indicating where the planes used to be, not where they were at that moment. This technology was rapidly replaced by radar.”
During the World War, many blind men, with ears trained to special acuteness in compensation for loss of sight, volunteered for this service in Britain, and it is likely that such sightless soldiers are again helping their companions to locate enemies in the dark.
The first Japanese air raids on the American-held island of Corregidor in late December, 1941
were detected by acoustic locators.
Day 5: Hand-outs – 1 of 6
Name ______________________ Date ________________
Name _________________________ Date ______________
Slide – Day 5
Slides – Day 6
A Comparative Look at Hearing Range
|A number of animals produce and use sounds in the infrasonic range for communication over very long distances. After the 2004 tsunami, it was reported that dogs refused to go outside, zoo animals wouldn’t leave their shelters and elephants burst their chains rushing to higher ground.
Elephants, whales, tigers, rhinos, giraffe, horses and other animals communicate using low frequency sounds, some of which are infrasonic. It could be that herd animals rely on infrasound to keep the group together and to communicate over distance.http://www.healingsounds.co.za/content/about-sound-1
Slide – Day 5
|Alexander Graham Bell invented the alphabet glove to use with his hearing- impaired mother, wife and students.Gray, Charlotte, Reluctant Genius: Alexander Graham Bell and the Passion for Invention, Arcade Publishing, 2006, p.|
Homework – Day 6
Reading Selection – Birds: Super Song, Super Hearing http://www.pbs.org/lifeofbirds/songs/
Bird song has two main functions: to defend a territory and to attract a mate. Male birds do these things, so, throughout the bird world, it is usually the males singing the songs.
In most species, a male bird owning a territory is essential for attracting a female and breeding successfully. Males claim a territory by singing in it. They generally use shorter, simpler songs for territorial defense. They are addressing their songs to rival males. These territorial songs carry over long distances and convey detailed information about the location and identity of the singer. Gaps in the song enable the singer to listen for replies, and determine where their rival is and how far off.
Birds can distinguish neighbors from strangers by individual differences in their songs. Males use this information to concentrate their defense efforts. They will not react aggressively against a neighbor as long as he stays on his own territory. But a singing stranger could mean a threat to the territory; a strong response is required to see this potential invader off.
When they are trying to attract females onto their territory, males become operatic. They sing longer and more complex songs. Females listen, but do not generally respond. Male great reed warblers, for example, sing long and elaborate songs when advertising for females. The females will spend several days visiting a selection of singing males before making their decision. They prefer to mate with males singing the most complex songs with the largest repertoire. Large song repertoires are an advantage in many birds, because they increase a male’s attractiveness to females.
The record holder must surely be the brown thrasher, with over 2000 songs in its repertoire. The sedge warbler produces some of the longest and most complicated of all bird songs. An individual male may never repeat exactly the same sequence of elements twice during the course of his life. He constantly varies the order in which he arranges the 50 or so elements at its disposal.
Marsh wrens conduct singing duels for control of the best quality territories in the limited marsh habitats in the western United States.
The male sings almost continuously until he acquires a mate – then singing abruptly stops. He may then switch to a short simple and economical song to defend his territory.
Imitating or mimicking the calls of other species is one way that birds can increase their own repertoire, and be more attractive to mates. They can also vary the order, sequence or repetition of phrases to sound more variable. The most renowned vocal mimics in the bird world include mockingbirds, starlings, mynahs, marsh warbler, lyrebirds, bowerbirds, scrub-birds and African robin-chats. Starlings in the Shetland islands in Scotland have been known to mimic sheep; in Oxford, England, they mimic buses. The lyrebird, which Sir David Attenborough meets on a log in a dense forest in Australia, is the bird world’s best mimic. It can imitate 12 other birds. It does the whirring of a camera’s motor drive and the click of a shutter. It repeats the engine of a car, and the din of a car alarm. It can even imitate the screech of the chainsaw wielded by the loggers coming to cut down its habitat.
Some migratory species, such as the marsh warbler, have an international repertoire. These birds nest in Europe but migrate to Africa in winter. Althoughthe marsh warbler imitates some European species, most of its songs are those of African birds, which it hears on the wintering grounds. The warbler may mimic the calls of over 70 bird species. Warblers are telling females where they spend the winter. A female may find it advantageous to pair with a male adapted to wintering in the same part of Africa as she does.
Homework – Day 2
Reading Selection: A History of Early Acoustic Enhancement
When the Big Bad Wolf donned grandmothery garb so as to surprise Little Red Riding Hood, he assured her that the big ears were “all the better to hear you with.” Essentially, the Big Bad Wolf was explaining the basic operating principle behind most of the world’s acoustic location devices.
Originally, acoustic location was used for ship detection in fog conditions but from mid-World-War-One to the early years of World War Two the devices were often used for aircraft detection. They were all rendered obsolete by the introduction of radar, but for a time they served a useful purpose in national defense.
If not effective they were at least distinctive. At the Brussels Inventor’s Fair of 1960, Frenchman Jean Ausgher exhibited his wearable acoustic navigation device. It was to be used by small ships in case of radar failure. The distance between the horns increased the observer’s ability to localize the direction of a sound. Unfortunately, in this case the horns weren’t far enough apart. With Ausgher’s device you would hear an oncoming vessel about the time it was to collide with you.
Operation of most large acoustic detectors usually required the use of three crewmen and four horns. One man’s task was to operate and adjust the elevation of the device for maximum reading, another adjusted for the greatest direction bearing, and a third reported the settings to a central location. Using several results from multiple detectors, the target’s location could be triangulated, and the information was then passed on to anti-aircraft defenses. The whole process was done in a surprisingly short period of time.
No detector was better than the German Ringtrichterrichtungshoerer (RRH). The detector was used mainly in anti-aircraft searchlight batteries for the detection of British night bomber formations. The RRH could detect targets at a distance of twelve kilometers, and depending upon weather conditions and operator skill, it could help detect the size of the aircraft formation. It had a directional accuracy of 2 degrees. The device had a crew of three with the dial reader in the middle. The rolled up material over the operator’s heads could be unfurled to provide cover in bad weather.
The Japanese “war tuba” is a name sometimes applied to Imperial Japanese military acoustic locators due to their visual resemblance to a musical tuba. The name derived from a misidentification, probably in jest, of a historical photo from the 1930s featuring the Japanese emperor Hirohito inspecting the acoustic locators with anti-aircraft guns in the background. It was used around major military targets and Tokyo.
The British and Americans also had small acoustic detectors of limited effectiveness. However, the British did build a series of huge stationary concrete “acoustic mirrors”, some of which are still standing to this day.
|Another remarkable machine was a French acoustic locator based on a hexagonal layout. Each of the four assemblies carried thirty-six smaller, hexagonally-shaped horns. This layout was presumably used to increase the directional gain of the equipment. Because the detector was so large and out in the open, the type was abandoned after being repeatedly bombed by the enemy.|
Acoustic detectors are still used today by television crews to pick up the sounds of players and coaches on the field during televised sporting events, where use of conventional microphones would be too intrusive. They are also used as novelty items — “whisper dishes” — in science museums to allow patrons to whisper across long distances.
Multimedia Resources – Day 4 – Extension 2: Seeing Sound: Making Sound Visible : The Art of Sound & Hearing
”Grains of sand arrange themselves into complex geometric patterns according to audio frequencies in these fascinating resonance experiments by Youtube user Brusspup. The sand is sprinkled onto a black metal plate attached to a tone generator, which emits a series of increasing frequencies. The higher the frequencies, the more intricate the designs become.”
The Wave Organ is a wave-activated acoustic sculpture located on a jetty in the San Francisco Bay. The installation includes 25 organ pipes made of PVC and concrete located at various elevations within the site, allowing for the rise and fall of the tides. Sound is created by the impact of waves against the pipe ends and the subsequent movement of the water in and out of the pipes.
Artist Luke Jerram is preparing an outdoor ‘acoustic pavilion’ called Aeolus, which will be built of hundreds of metal tubes acting as Aeolian harps. Each tube will contain strings which will strike chords inside the structure as the wind passes over them, making the whole structure sing. Visitors to the piece will be able to sit in the center of the structure. Jerrem’s work includes a number of environmentally focused projects, including one that amplifies and orchestrates sounds made by plants. https://freshkillspark.wordpress.com/2010/03/09/outdoor-sound-sculpture-to-be-played-by-wind/http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-22487281
De Salle, R. and Tattersall, I. 2012. The Brain: Big Bangs, Behaviors and Beliefs. New Haven & London: Yale University Press.
De Salle, R. The Sensing Brain. AMNH: Seminars in Science. The Brain. Week Two.
Chan, D.K. Hearing and Deafness. AMNH: Seminars in Science. The Brain. Week Two
 Figure 1: http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/upload/091019_brain_responds_to_human_eye.jpg Figure 2: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/277325.php http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/hearing.html#back
 Attributed to Helen Keller:
 Attributed to Helen Keller: http://www.alldeaf.com/showthread.php?t=78156
 De Salle, R. and Tattersall, I. 2012. The Brain: Big Bangs, Behaviors and Beliefs.
New Haven & London: Yale University Press. p. 115
Resource – Calendar
http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/content/kitchenscience/exp/swapping-sounds/http://www.amnh.org/explore/ology/brain/?fid=29636http://www.wildmusic.org/en/soundscapes/placematters & http://www.wildmusic.org/en/soundscapes/soundmixer
http://auditoryneuroscience.com/book/export/html/393http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/cochleahttp://www.discovery.com/tv-shows/discovery-presents/ videos/ understanding-the-brain-hearing.htmhttp://hesp.ent.uci.edu/drupal/simulations
Gray, Charlotte, Reluctant Genius: Alexander Graham Bell and the Passion for Invention, Arcade Publishing, 2006
http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/eyes/cochlear.htmlhttp://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/nih3/hearing/guide/nih_hear_masters.pdf p.6 & 7http://www.cs.indiana.edu/~port/teach/641/audition.for.linguists.Sept1.htmlhttp://www.educationworld.com/a_lesson/showbiz_science/showbiz_science009.shtmlhttp://kitchenbridge.blogspot.com/2011_01_01_archive.html
American Museum of Natural History – amnh.org/ology – Braille Worksheet
Lifesprint.com – Dr. Bill’s ASL Fingerspelling and Handshape Art
Teacher Created Resources, Inc. – Manual Alphabet
Crayola.com – Morse Code Message